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Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when applied in sufficient quantities, confer a host health benefit. The use of probiotics in poultry has continued to increase over the years due to the increasing demand for non-antibiotic poultry. 

The aim of this systematic review was to present and assess the effects of probiotics on nutrient utilization, laying growth and productivity, gut histomorphology, immunity, and gut microbiota in poultry. An electronic search is carried out using the appropriate keywords to enter documents related to the topic. 

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The results showed that probiotic supplementation could have the following effects: 

1) modification of the gut microbiota

(2) stimulation of the immune system 

(3) reduction of inflammatory reactions

(4) prevention of pathogen colonization 

(5) growth enhancement

(6) a marked change in ileal digestibility and absorption rate from the common tract 

(7) a reduction in the excretion of ammonia and urea. In this way, probiotics can serve as a potential alternative to growth stimulant antibiotics in poultry production. 

Factors such as bird gut health, degree of incorporation of probiotics; and incubation conditions, the quality of food and water offered to birds can affect yields. This systematic review provides a summary of the use of probiotics in poultry production and the potential role of probiotics in nutritional utilization, laying growth and productivity, and gut health in poultry.

Direct-Fed Microbials in Poultry Nutrition